Monday, February 20, 2012

Chapter 4 & 5 Questions

Chapter 4 Questions 2,8, and 17
Had to improvise on the question as I could not find the questions that were assigned. There was no number 8 or 17. Therefore I decided to answer numbers 1 and 7 instead.

1. What are some major cause of student inattention? How can the teacher best prevent inattention?
Some of the primary causes of student inattention are environmental distractions, inability to hear or see, as well as inefficient use of time. Environmental distraction include other people and object (equipment) within the environment. Teachers can prevent this sort of inattention through establishing a procedure when equipment is out; having students put it down and step away for it. Also, if students are working in groups have them separate themselves so they would distract one another. If a student is unable to hear or see the teacher they are more likely to zone out. Therefore, as a teacher you need to determine whether or not it is best to huddle in give instructions or not. Also the teacher needs to consider where they are positioned in respect to their students. If a teacher has their back to half the class is it likely that those students will not be able to see or hear the teacher. Additionally, when outdoors it is important to consider the glare from the sun and teachers such position students so they are not looking into the sun. Furthermore, if time is used inefficiently students will become "bored" and zone out. It is important to keep instructions short and concise. 

2. What are some things teachers can do to improve communication with learners in task presentation?
When presenting students with a task to break it down  into content (what is to be performed) and management (organizational arrangements) and give student time to process both. Basically if students will be working in groups you don't  not mention the organizational arrangements until the content has been clearly established or give them time to get into groups or get equipment and then instruct them of content. The latter will probably suite more situations.  Now that you have create a environment that will help students be able to best learn your delivery of information is also important. As a teacher you want to present material in a logical sequence. Additionally examples of task as well as non-examples help student understand the task for what it is as well as that it is not. Furthermore when the material is complex or elaborate it is important to repeat the information and check or understand.

7. What are organizational signals? where are they most necessary in a physical education class?
 Organization signals include a number of different aspects of effectively managing students and the class environment. Initial it is important to establish signals for attention procedures in order to be able to gain and maintaining attention in various environments. This signal is especially important for in outdoor settings and shared spaced. Also, organizational signals include the arrangement of an activity. Not only is it important to be able to get your students attention is it necessary to clear instructions on how the activity will be carried out. Again this is important when learning new skills and when outdoors. Finally organizational signals also includes the task cues as these verbal words or phrases are what create an understanding of the activity and who go about correctly performing the task. If these verbal cues are not fully development they will of little benefit to the learners and their development of the skill.

Chapter 5 questions 1,3, and 5
1. Identify and describe the three different content moves that establish progression and represent the way the teacher develops lesson content.
Extension, refinement and application are the three teacher content moves that establish the progression and development of lesson plan. Extension refers to gradual introduction of more complexity and more difficulty of the task. Refinement is content move that promotes a level of quality of student performance within the task. The application move steers the focus away from who to do the task to how to use the task when appropriate.

3. How should the progression establish for an open skill differ from that of a closed skill?
The progression for a open skill should help develop the perform to adapt the skills to the changing environment. Therefore the progression should provide opportunities to practice the execution of the skill as well as the practice appropriate skill selection. Moreover it is important not to teach open skills in closed environments as this hinders the learner. The progression of development for closed skills should be focused on producing consistent high-accuracy skill performance in predictable environments. In this case the progression should establish the prerequisites at the beginning stages of learning if necessary. This skills can be taught in whole-part, allow students to see the whole skill and then breaking it down into simpler components. A tool that is often used in the progression for closed skills in manipulating the environment in which the skill taught to easy the progression for learners.
5. Develop the extension column for a closed skill and open skill, attending to the unique aspect of progression established in the chapter.

Open Skill: Racquetball: Hitting the Back Wall Shot
-Provide verbal cues: Teach the upward swing
-Each person set the their own ball up by throwing it to the back wall to their dominate side
-Each person set the their own ball up by throwing it to the back wall to their non-dominate side (focus on footwork)
-Have another player set the ball up throwing it to the back wall to students dominate side
-Have another player set the ball up throwing it to the back wall to students dominate side (focus on foot work)
-Have another player set the ball by hitting first against the front wall (changing direction)
-Have students work on hitting the back wall after the serve and first hit occurs (in motion)

Closed Skill: Handstand
-Provide verbal cues: Teach proper arm positioning
-Only one leg leaves the ground
-Both legs leave the ground
-Tap the leg together while in the air 
-Get leg up further
-Hit balance point
-Maintain balance point
-Begin to work on critical elements of performance (plantar extension, body shape, legs together)

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